In 1993, Michel Vulpe founded Infrastructures for Information Inc. (i4i). In 1994, he and co-inventor Stephen Owens applied for a patent for their original invention. In 1998, the USPTO issued patent ‘449 for i4i’s invention and described it as a system and method for the separate manipulation of the architecture and content of a document, particularly for data representation and transformations. The system, for use by computer software developers, removes dependency on document encoding technology. A map of metacodes found in the document is produced and provided and stored separately from the document. The map indicates the location and addresses of metacodes in the document. The system allows for multiple views of the same content, the ability to work solely on structure and solely on content, storage efficiency of multiple versions and efficiency of operation.